Civil War New York






"The New York Mirror" periodical, 1833-34, bound volume, personal copy of Dr. DuPont, during the blockade expedition to Port Royal Harbor, South Carolina, on the'USS Florida'.

This volume was taken on board the'Florida' during the war and Dr. Cohen read Shakespeare from this volume to the Acting Paymaster and Captain's clerk on Nov. Jacob da Silva Solis Cohen, Philadelphia otolaryngologist, was born in New York on 28 February 1838. He married Miriam Binswanger on 10 February 1874; they had nine children. Cohen died in Philadelphia on 22 December 1927.

From the University of Pennsylvania in 1860. He served a brief residency at the Pennsylvania Hospital, then held several positions as a surgeon during the Civil War. He opened his private practice in Philadelphia in 1866 and began to concentrate on diseases of the throat and chest. In 1867, he performed the first successful American laryngotomy for removal of a cancerous growth; he also performed the first closed-field laryngotomy in 1892. In 1867 he assumed the post of Lecturer in Electrotherapeutics at Jefferson Medical College, then became Lecturer in Laryngoscopy and Diseases of the Chest in 1869.

He also helped to found the Philadelphia Polyclinic and College for Graduates in Medicine and became Professor of Diseases of the Throat and Chest there. He published several works including, Diseases of the throat (1872) and the revised edition, Diseases of the throat and nasal passages (1879).

He was elected to fellowship in the College of Physicians of Philadelphia in 1871. This book was a relic of the blockade following the Battle of Port Royal, which took place one week prior to the entries in the book although its likely the book was present at the Battle in early November as it contains a.

The book is a copy of the New York Mirror from 1833-34, a popular periodical in a large folio format. The book remains in good form for a War survivor, the spine with some leather loss but retaining most of the large bands, as well as a the gilt title, as shown. The marbled hardcovers are lightly exposed and rounded at most of the edges and extremities. The upper board and a few leaves in front and rear are loose and with edgewear; the inscribed leaves in front and rear as shown- the book likely passing from officer to officer during the Blockade with multiple hands written. The book itself contains a plethora of interesting.

And full page engravings, with expected foxing from maritime exposure; it contains a years worth of monthly papers. Measures 14.5" x 11". A RARE CIVIL WAR INSCRIBED RELIC FROM A PROMINENT AMERICAN JEWISH SURGEON WITH PRIVATEERING ENTRIES AND DRAWINGS! See more on the USS Florida, the Battle of Port Royal, The Blockade, and of course Solis-Cohen below. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Jacob da Silva Solis-Cohen (right), shown examining a patient Photograph circa 1868, courtesy of Thomas Jefferson University Archives and Special Collections, Scott Memorial Library, Philadelphia. December 22, 1927 (aged 89). Jacob da Silva Solis-Cohen (1838December 22, 1927) was a physician who specialized in the field of laryngology. Jacob da Silva Solis-Cohen was born in New York City.

To Myer David Cohen and Judith Simiah da Silva Solis who were both from prominent Sephardic. He was an elder brother of Leon da Silva Solis-Cohen and Solomon Solis-Cohen.

And a grandson of Jacob da Silva Solis. Jacob da Silva Solis-Cohen's family can be traced back to their expulsion from Spain. Of note is Solomon da Silva Solis (Jacob da Silva Solis-Cohen's great-grandfather), who fled to Amsterdam from Spain in the 17th century and married Isabel da Fonseca, daughter of the marquis of Turin, count of Villa Real and Monterrey. In 1875 he married Miriam Binswanger, with whom he had eight daughters (Judith Simira, Sophia Rebecca, Miriam Fonseca, Elinor, Rosalie Isabel, Bertha Florence, Esther and Edith) and three sons Myer, Jacob da Silva, Jr. In 1840, after only two years of his life spent in New York City, his family moved to Philadelphia. Solis-Cohen was educated at Central High School. And the University of Pennsylvania. Where he earned his medical degree in 1860. In 1861 he began his medical residency at Old Blockley in Philadelphia but resigned the same year to enlist as a private in the Union army at the outbreak of the Civil War. He was soon commissioned as a lieutenant in the infantry and later appointed as assistant surgeon in the Twenty-sixth Regiment of the Pennsylvania Volunteers. After serving in Hooker's Brigade in the defense of Washington, D. He later transferred to the Navy as Acting Assistant Surgeon. Serving under Rear Admiral S.

In the expedition to Port Royal Harbor, South Carolina. On the United States Steamer Florida. He remained in the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Until January 12, 1864, when he resigned from the Navy. After the Civil War, he began his work in the field of laryngology.

In 1866, he was the first in the United States to institute regular lectures on laryngology at the Philadelphia School of Anatomy. In 1870 he was appointed lecturer on laryngoscopy and diseases of the throat and chest in the Jefferson Medical College. And two years later professor of laryngology. His first work on the subject, entitled Inhalation in the Treatment of Disease. Was published in 1867, and was followed in 1872 by his great work Diseases of the Throat and Nasal Passages.

In 1874, Solis-Cohen published a monograph on Croup in its Relations to Tracheotomy. Based on the study of 5,000 recorded cases; in 1875 he published a book on The Throat and Voice. He was one of the founders of the Archives of Laryngology. And for many years edited the laryngological department of the American Journal of the Medical Sciences.

He also helped to found the American Laryngological Association. Of which he was the second president from 1880 to 1882. As the result of his experience in the Civil War he excelled in the surgery of the upper air passages.

In 1892 he was the first in America to perform a successful complete laryngectomy. Samuel Francis Du Pont by Daniel Huntington. 186768, oil on canvas, National Portrait Gallery. June 23, 1865 (aged 61) Philadelphia.

Samuel Francis Du Pont (September 27, 1803 June 23, 1865) was a rear admiral. In the United States Navy. And a member of the prominent Du Pont family. Du Pont captured San Diego. And was made commander of the California naval blockade.

Through the 1850s, he promoted engineering studies at the United States Naval Academy. To enable more mobile and aggressive operations. In the American Civil War. He played a major role in making the Union blockade effective, but was controversially blamed for the failed attack on Charleston, South Carolina.

Early life and naval career. Painting of Du Pont as a midshipman.

Du Pont was born at Goodstay, his family home at Bergen Point. The fourth child and second son of Victor Marie du Pont.

And Gabrielle Joséphine de la Fite de Pelleport. His uncle was Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. Du Pont de Nemours Company. Which began as a gunpowder factory and today is a multinational chemical corporation.

Samuel was the only member of his generation to use a capital D. Du Pont spent his childhood at his father's home, Louviers. From his uncle's estate and gunpowder factory, Eleutherian Mills, just north of Wilmington, Delaware. He was enrolled at Mount Airy Academy in Germantown, Pennsylvania. However, his father was unable to fund his education because of his failing wool mill, and he was encouraged to instead enlist in the U.

His family's close connections with President Thomas Jefferson. Helped secure him an appointment as a midshipman. As there was no naval academy at the time, Du Pont learned mathematics.

At sea and became an accomplished navigator by the time he took his next assignment aboard the frigate. He then served aboard the frigate.

And off the coast of Brazil. Though still not yet a commissioned officer, he was promoted to sailing master. During his service aboard the 74-gun North Carolina. In 1825, which sailed on a mission to display American influence and power in the Mediterranean.

Soon after his promotion to Lieutenant in 1826, he was ordered aboard the 12-gun schooner. Despite the short period in which he had been an officer by this time, Du Pont had begun to openly criticize many of his senior officers, who he believed were incompetent and had only received their commands through political influence. Sophie Madeleine du Pont, in a photograph by Mathew Brady.

After returning from the Ontario in June 1833, Du Pont married Sophie Madeleine du Pont (181088), his first cousin as the daughter of his uncle, Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. As he never kept an officer's journal, his voluminous correspondence with Sophie serves as the main documentation of his operations and observations throughout the rest of his naval career. From 1835 until 1838, he was the executive officer.

Commanding both the latter and the schooner Grampus. In the Gulf of Mexico. In the Mediterranean until 1841. The following year he was promoted to Commander. And set sail for China aboard the brig.

But was forced to return home and give up his command because of severe illness. The flagship of Commodore Robert Stockton. Reaching California by way of a cruise of the Hawaiian.

Islands by the time the MexicanAmerican War. USS Cyane Taking Possession of San Diego Old Town July 1846 , by Carlton T.

Du Pont was given command of the sloop Cyane. In 1846 and quickly showed his skill as a naval combat commander, taking or destroying thirty enemy ships and clearing the Gulf of California. Du Pont transported Major John Fremont.

S troops to San Diego, where they captured the city. Du Pont then continued operations along the Baja coast, including the capture of La Paz. And burnt two enemy gunboats in the harbor of Guaymas. He led the main line of ships that took Mazatlán.

On November 11, 1847, and on February 15, 1848, launched an amphibious assault on San José del Cabo. That managed to strike three miles (5 km) inland and relieve a besieged squadron, despite heavy resistance. He was given command of the California naval blockade. In the last months of the war and, after taking part in further land maneuvers, was ordered home.

Du Pont served most of the next decade on shore assignment, and his efforts during this time are credited with helping to modernize the U. He studied the possibilities of steam power. And mathematics in the curriculum that he established for the new United States Naval Academy. He was appointed superintendent of the Academy, but resigned after four months because he believed it was a post more appropriate for someone closer to retirement age. He was an advocate for a more mobile and offensive Navy, rather than the harbor defense function that much of it was then relegated to, and worked on revising naval rules and regulations.

After being appointed to the board of the United States Lighthouse Service. His recommendations for upgrading the antiquated system were largely adopted by Congress.

In 1853, Du Pont was made general superintendent over what is typically considered the first World's Fair. In the United Statesthe Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations. Held in New York City. Despite international praise, low attendance caused the venture to go into heavy debt, and Du Pont resigned. Du Pont became an enthusiastic supporter of naval reform, writing in support of the 1855 congressional act to Promote the Efficiency of the Navy.

He was appointed to the Naval Efficiency Board and oversaw the removal of 201 naval officers. When those under fire called upon friends in Congress, Du Pont himself became the subject of heavy criticism, and subsequent review of the dismissals resulted in the reinstatement of nearly half of those removed. The Official Escorts to the Japanese Embassy, 1860: Du Pont, center, with Sidney Smith Lee. Du Pont was promoted to captain. In 1857 he was given command of the steam frigate. And ordered to transport William Reed, the U.

Minister to China, to his post in Beijing. Du Pont's Minnesota was one of seventeen warships parading Western force in China, and after China failed to satisfy demands for greater access to its ports, he witnessed the capture of Chinese forts on the Peiho River.

By the French and English on April 28, 1858. He then sailed to Japan, India, and Arabia.

He played a major role in the receiving of the Japanese ambassador that year, accompanying him on his three-month visit to Washington. The trip was a breakthrough for opening Japan to American trade.

Du Pont was then made commandant of the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. When communication was cut off with Washington. At the start of the Civil War, Du Pont took the initiative of sending a fleet to the Chesapeake Bay. To protect the landing of Union troops at Annapolis, Maryland. In June 1861 he was made president of a board in Washington formed to develop a plan of naval operations against the Confederacy.

He was appointed flag officer. Serving aboard the steam frigate Wabash. As commander of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. The largest fleet ever commanded by an American officer at that time. On November 7, Du Pont led a successful attack.

On the fortifications at Port Royal. This victory enabled Union naval forces to secure the southern waters of Georgia.

And the entire eastern coast of Florida, and an effective blockade was established. Du Pont received commendations from U. For his brilliant tactical success, and was appointed rear admiral.

Photograph of Du Pont in 1862 by Frederick Gutekunst. Towards the end of 1862, Du Pont became the first U. Naval officer to be assigned command over armored ironclad. Though he commanded them ably in engagements with other ships, they performed poorly in an attack on Fort McAllister.

Due to their small number of guns and slow rate of fire. Du Pont was then given direct orders from the Navy Department. To launch an attack on Charleston. South Carolina which was the site of the first shots fired in the Civil War with the fall of Fort Sumter.

And the main area in which the Union blockade had been unsuccessful. Though Du Pont believed that Charleston could not be taken without significant land troop support, he nevertheless attacked. With nine ironclads on April 7, 1863. Unable to navigate properly in the obstructed channels leading to the harbor, his ships were caught in a blistering crossfire, and he withdrew them before nightfall.

Five of his nine ironclads were disabled in the failed attack, and one more subsequently sank. The Secretary of the Navy. Blamed Du Pont for the highly publicized failure at Charleston. Du Pont himself anguished over it and, despite an engagement in which vessels under his command defeated and captured a Confederate. Ironclad, was relieved of command on July 5, 1863, at his own request and was replaced in this Office by Rear Admiral John A.

Though he enlisted the help of Maryland. To get his official report of the incident published by the Navy, an ultimately inconclusive congressional investigation into the failure essentially turned into a trial of whether Du Pont had misused his ships and misled his superiors. Du Pont's attempt to garner the support of President Abraham Lincoln.

However, subsequent events arguably vindicated Du Pont's judgment and capabilities. Naval attack on the city failed, despite being launched with a significantly larger fleet of armored ships. Charleston was finally taken only by the invasion of General Sherman.

Coat of Arms of Samuel Francis Du Pont. Du Pont died on June 23, 1865, while on a trip to Philadelphia and is buried in the du Pont family cemetery. The cemetery is located near the Hagley Museum. In 1882, 17 years after Du Pont's death, the U. Finally moved to recognize his service and commissioned a sculpture of him to be placed in Pacific Circle in Washington. A bronze sculpture of Du Pont by Launt Thompson. Was dedicated on December 20, 1884, and the traffic circle was renamed Dupont Circle. Though the circle still bears his name, the statue was moved to Rockford Park. Part of Wilmington State Parks. By the du Pont family in 1920, and replaced by a fountain. Designed by Daniel Chester French. Was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Navy ships; the torpedo boat TB-7. Were all named in his honor. Public School 31 in Greenpoint, Brooklyn. In San Francisco, CA, at one time was named Dupont Street following the MexicanAmerican War of 18461848. While it was renamed after President Ulysses S. In 1906, Grant Avenue is still written and said in Chinese as "Dupont Gai" (, Gai means street). USS Wabash crew served four of five Parrott Rifle guns.

Part of the American Civil War. View of the battle from the Confederate heights by Rossiter Johnson.

Port Royal Sound, South Carolina. 77 vessels 12,653 troops. 44 cannons 3,077 troops 4 gunboats. 31 (8 killed, 23 wounded).

63 (11 killed, 48 wounded, 4 missing). The Battle of Port Royal was one of the earliest amphibious operations of the American Civil War. In which a United States Navy.

Fleet and United States Army. Expeditionary force captured Port Royal Sound. The sound was guarded by two forts on opposite sides of the entrance, Fort Walker on Hilton Head Island. To the south and Fort Beauregard on Phillip's Island. A small force of four gunboats. Supported the forts, but did not materially affect the battle. The attacking force assembled outside of the sound beginning on November 3 after being battered by a storm during their journey down the coast. The fleet moved to the attack on November 7, after more delays caused by the weather during which additional troops were brought into Fort Walker. Ordered his ships to keep moving in an elliptical path, bombarding Fort Walker on one leg and Fort Beauregard on the other; the tactic had recently been used effectively at the Battle of Hatteras Inlet. His plan soon broke down, however, and most ships took enfilading positions that exploited a weakness in Fort Walker. The Confederate gunboats put in a token appearance, but fled up a nearby creek when challenged. Early in the afternoon, most of the guns in the fort were out of action, and the soldiers manning them fled to the rear. A landing party from the flagship took possession of the fort. When Fort Walker fell, the commander of Fort Beauregard across the sound feared that his soldiers would soon be cut off with no way to escape, so he ordered them to abandon the fort. Another landing party took possession of the fort and raised the Union flag the next day. Despite the heavy volume of fire, loss of life on both sides was low, at least by standards set later during the American Civil War. Only eight were killed in the fleet and eleven on shore, with four other Southerners missing.

Total casualties came to less than 100. Early in the war, the U. Navy had the responsibility of blockading. Coastline, but found this task difficult when forced to rely on fueling and resupply ports in the North for its coal-fired steamships.

The problems of the blockade were considered by a commission. Appointed by Secretary of the Navy. Chairman of the commission was Capt. The commission stated its views of the South Carolina coast in its second report, dated July 13. In order to improve the blockade of Charleston, they considered seizing a nearby port.

They gave particular attention to three: Bull's Bay to the north of Charleston, and St. Helena Sound and Port Royal Sound to the south.

The latter two would also be useful in the blockade of Savannah. They considered Port Royal to be the best harbor, but believed that it would be strongly defended and therefore were reluctant to recommend that it be taken. Shortly after the bombardment of Fort Sumter. In Charleston Harbor had started the war, Confederate Brigadier General. Did not believe that Port Royal Sound could be adequately defended, as forts on opposite sides of the sound would be too far apart for mutual support.

Overruled by South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens. He drew up plans for two forts at the entrance. Soon called away to serve the Confederate Army in Virginia, he turned the task of implementing his plans over to Maj.

Lee of the South Carolina Army Engineers. Before the war, Lee had been an architect, and had designed several churches in Charleston. Work on the two forts began in July 1861, but progressed only slowly.

Labor for the construction was obtained by requisitions of slave labor from local farms and plantations, which the owners were reluctant to provide. Construction was not complete when the attack came. Beauregard's plan was also altered because the heavy guns he wanted were not available.

To compensate for the reduced weight of fire by increased volume, the number of guns in the water battery of Fort Walker was increased from seven 10 in (250 mm) columbiads. To 12 guns of smaller caliber, plus a single 10 in (250 mm).

Fitting the increased number into the available space required that the traverses be eliminated. The battery was therefore vulnerable to enfilade. In addition to the 13 guns of the water battery, Fort Walker had another seven guns mounted to repel land attacks from the rear and three on the right wing. Two other guns were in the fort, but were not mounted.

Fort Beauregard was almost as strong; it also had 13 guns that bore on the channel, plus six others for protection against land attacks. The garrisons were increased in size; 687 men were in and near Fort Wagner in mid-August. On November 6, another 450 infantry and 50 artillerymen were added, and 650 more came from Georgia the same day. Because of its isolated position, the garrison of Fort Beauregard could not be easily increased. The force on Philip's Island was 640 men, of whom 149 were in the fort and the remainder infantry defending against land assault.

For lack of transportation, all of the late-arriving troops were retained at Fort Walker. While the forts were being built, the state of Georgia was forming a rudimentary navy by converting a few tugs and other harbor craft into gunboats. Although they could not face the ships of the US Navy on the open seas, their shallow draft enabled them to move freely about in the inland waters along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia. They were commanded by Flag Officer Josiah Tattnall. When the Georgia navy was transferred to and became part of the Confederate States Navy, Tattnall found himself in charge of the coastal defenses of both South Carolina and Georgia.

He had four gunboats in the vicinity of Port Royal Sound; one was a converted coaster, and three were former tugs. Each mounted only two guns. Throughout the summer of 1861, the task of blockading the entire Atlantic coast of the Confederacy was assigned to the U. Navy's Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Because of the great distances involved, the squadron was split in mid-September.

Responsibility for the coast south of the North CarolinaSouth Carolina state line was given to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Command of the new squadron was given to Du Pont, who henceforth was addressed as Flag Officer Du Pont. Du Pont did not assume command immediately, as he continued to prepare for the attack.

As retaining possession of shore facilities would require land forces, getting the cooperation of the U. Army was among the first requirements. The War Department agreed to furnish 13,000 troops, to be commanded by Brigadier General Thomas W. Sherman's force was organized into three brigades, under Brigadier Generals Egbert L. Serious planning was thereafter done by Du Pont, Sherman, Wright, and the Quartermaster General, Brigadier General Montgomery C.

In the months preceding the battle, the army in South Carolina went through several changes in leadership. On May 27, 1861, Beauregard left, being called to serve with the Confederate States (CS) Army in Virginia. Command of the state volunteer forces was then transferred to Colonel. Anderson was in turn replaced by Brigadier General Roswell S. Of the CS Army, who on August 21, 1861 was assigned to command of the Department of South Carolina. The final relevant change at the top took place almost on the eve of battle, on November 5, 1861, when the coasts of South Carolina, Georgia, and East Florida were constituted a military department under the command of General Robert E. General Lee was not closely related to Major Francis D. Lee, the engineer responsible for building Forts Walker and Beauregard. None of these changes was particularly important, as most attention was given to more active parts of the war than Port Royal Sound. The most important change of command directly affecting the forts took place on October 17, 1861, when Brigadier General Thomas F. Was assigned to the Third Military District of the Department of South Carolina, which meant that the forts were in his jurisdiction. Drayton, who was a member of a prominent Charleston family and a graduate of the United States Military Academy. Remained in command through the actions of November 7. Whether he could have hastened the preparations of the forts for battle is debatable; the fact is that he did not. Although preparations for battle proceeded throughout the summer and early fall of 1861, the schedule proposed by the administration could not be met. As late as September 18, President Lincoln could still advocate a start date of October 1. Du Pont felt that the Navy Department was rushing him in without proper preparation. Despite his reservations, the force was assembled the soldiers and their transports at Annapolis, Maryland.

The sailors and warships at New York. The two branches rendezvoused at Hampton Roads. Bad weather delayed departure from there by another week, during which time Du Pont and Sherman were able to make final arrangements. Among the issues to be settled was the target; up until this time, the decision of whether to strike at Bull's Bay or Port Royal had not been made.

Only after he was sure that the latter would meet future needs of the fleet, and Bull's Bay would not, did Du Pont finally commit the expedition to the attack on Port Royal. On October 28, 25 coal and ammunition vessels departed Hampton Roads, accompanied by two warships, Vandalia. And Gem of the Sea. The remainder of the fleet, including 17 warships and all of the army transports, put out to sea the next day. The full fleet of 77 vessels was the largest assemblage of ships that had ever sailed under the American flag; the distinction would not last long.

In an effort to maintain secrecy, Du Pont had not told anyone other than his immediate staff the destination. He had given each captain a sealed envelope, to be opened only at sea.

The message given to Captain Francis S. Of Vandalia is typical: Port Royal, S. Is the port of destination for yourself and the ships of your convoy.

Efforts at secrecy notwithstanding, almost everything about the expedition except its target was known to the entire world. 2 days before departure of the main fleet, the New York Times carried a front-page article entitled "The Great Naval Expedition, " in which the full order of battle down to regimental level was laid out for all to see. The article was repeated, word for word, in the Charleston newspapers of November 1.

Although Du Pont and others muttered aloud about treason and leaks in high places, the article was in fact the product of straightforward journalism. The author had gained most of his information by mingling with soldiers and sailors. No one had thought to sequester the men from the populace, even though the loyalties of the citizens of Maryland and Hampton Roads were divided.

Perhaps some real espionage was also available. Although the destination was supposed to be unknown until after the fleet sailed, acting Confederate Secretary of War Judah P. On November 1 telegraphed the South Carolina authorities that the enemy's expedition is intended for Port Royal.

The fleet maintained its formation as it moved down the coast until it had passed Cape Hatteras. As it passed into South Carolina waters on November 1, however, the wind increased to gale force, and in mid-afternoon Du Pont ordered the fleet to disregard the order of sailing.

Most of the ships managed to ride out the storm, but some had to abort their mission and return home for repairs, and others were lost. Had to jettison most of her guns in order to stay afloat.

Three ships carrying food and ammunition were sunk or driven ashore without loss of life: Union , Peerless , and Osceola. Transport Governor , carrying 300 Marines, went down; most of her contingent were saved, but seven men were drowned or otherwise lost in the rescue. The scattered ships began to arrive at the entrance to Port Royal Sound on November 3, and continued to straggle in for the next four days. The first day, November 4, was devoted to preparing new charts for the sound.

The Coast Survey vessel Vixen. Under her civilian captain Charles Boutelle. Entered the harbor and confirmed that the water was deep enough for all ships in the fleet. Confederate Flag Officer Josiah Tattnall.

Took his small flotilla, consisting of the gunboats CSS Savannah. Out to interfere with their measurements, but the superior firepower of the Union gunboats forced them to retire. Early in the morning of November 5, gunboats Ottawa , Seneca , Pembina , Curlew. Made another incursion into the harbor, this time seeking to draw enemy fire so as to gauge their strength. Again the Confederate flotilla came out to meet them, and again they were driven back. Informed Du Pont that the army could not take part in the operation. The loss of his ships in the storm had deprived him of his landing boats as well as much of his needed ammunition.

Furthermore, his transports were not combat loaded. Sherman would not commit his troops until the arrival of transport Ocean Express.

Carrying most of his small ammunition and heavy ordnance, and delayed by the storm. She would not arrive until after the battle was over. Unwilling to cancel the operation at this point, Du Pont ordered his fleet to attack, concentrating their fire on Fort Walker. As they moved in, however, flagship Wabash.

Drawing 22 ft (6.7 m), grounded on Fishing Rip Shoal. By the time she was worked free, the day was too far gone to continue the attack.

The weather on the next day, November 6, was stormy, so Du Pont postponed the attack for one more day. Du Pont's fleet captain and chief of staff, had the idea of keeping the ships in motion while bombarding the forts. This was a tactic that had recently been used successfully at the Battle of Hatteras Inlet. He presented his idea to the flag officer, who agreed. The plan as completed by Du Pont called for his fleet to enter the harbor at mid-channel. On the way in, they would engage both forts. After passing the forts, the heaviest ships would execute a turn to the left in column and go back against Fort Walker. Again past the fort, they would once more turn in column, and repeat the maneuver until the issue was decided.

While the main fleet was thus engaged, five of his lighter gunboats would form a flanking column that would proceed to the head of the harbor and shield the rest of the fleet from Tattnall's flotilla. A map of the battle. On November 7, the air was calm and gave no further reason for delay.

The fleet was drawn up into 2 columns and moved to the attack. The main body consisted of 9 ships with guns and one without. In order, they were flagship Wabash , Susquehanna.

Ottawa , Pembina , Isaac Smith , and Vandalia. Isaac Smith had jettisoned her guns during the storm, but she would now contribute by towing the sailing vessel Vandalia. Five gunboats formed the flanking column: Bienville.

Seneca , Penguin , Curlew , and Augusta. Mercury , and Penguin remained behind to protect the transports. The fight started at 09:26, when a gun in Fort Walker fired on the approaching fleet. This first shell exploded harmlessly a short distance out of the muzzle. Other shots followed, the fleet replied by firing on both forts, and the action became general.

Shells from the fleet ripped into the forts, although many of them passed harmlessly overhead and landed well beyond. Because the motion of the ships disrupted their aim, most of the shots from the forts missed; generally, they aimed too high, sending the missiles that were on target into the masts and upper works of the vessels. The ships proceeded according to Du Pont's orders through the first turn, but then the plan fell apart. Godon found that he could enfilade the water battery from a position safe from return fire, so he dropped out.

Those following him were confused, so they also dropped out. Only Wabash and Susquehanna continued in the line of battle.

The two ships made their second and third passes, and then were joined, inexplicably, by gunboat Bienville. The bombardment continued in this way until shortly after noon, when Pocahontas.

Delayed by the storm, put in her appearance. Her captain, Commander Percival Drayton.

Commander Drayton was the brother of Thomas F. The Confederate general who commanded the forces ashore. Ashore, Fort Walker was suffering, with most of the damage being done by the ships that had dropped out of the line of battle. The exhausted gunners had only three guns left in the water battery, the others being disabled. About 12:30, General Drayton left the fort to collect some reserves to replace the men in the fort.

Before leaving, he turned command over to Colonel William C. With instructions to hold out as long as possible. As he was returning at 14:00, he found the men leaving the fort.

They explained that they were almost out of powder for the guns, and had therefore abandoned their position. The departure of the soldiers from the fort was noticed by sailors in the fleet, and signal was soon passed to cease fire. A boat crew led by Commander John Rodgers. Went ashore under a flag of truce and found the fort abandoned.

Rodgers therefore raised the Union flag. No effort was made to further press the men who had just left the fort, so the entire surviving Confederate force was permitted to escape to the mainland. Fort Beauregard had not suffered punishment as severe as that given to Fort Walker, but Colonel Robert Gill Mills Dunovant. Was concerned that the enemy could easily cut off his only line of retreat. When the firing at Fort Walker ceased and cheering in the fleet was heard, he realized that his command was in peril. Rather than be trapped, he ordered the troops on Philip's Island to abandon their positions. This they did without destroying their stores, because to do so would have attracted the attention of the fleet.

Their departure was not noted, and not until a probing attack by gunboat Seneca elicited no reply was it realized that the fort was unmanned. As it was then very late in the day, raising the Union flag on Fort Beauregard was delayed until the following morning.

Union troops raise the Stars and Stripes. The battle being over, personnel losses could be determined.

Despite the large expenditure of shot and shell by both sides, casualties were rather light. In the Southern forts, 11 men had been killed, 47 were wounded, and 4 were missing. In the Northern fleet, 8 were killed and 23 wounded. These numbers do not include those lost in the sinking of transport Governor. Immediately following the capture of the forts, the Union forces consolidated their victory by occupying Beaufort.

And then moved north by next taking St. The northward expansion continued up to the rivers on the south side of Charleston, where it was halted. Thus, the siege of Charleston. Which continued until the last days of the war, can be said to have been initiated at Port Royal Sound. Who had been placed in command too late to affect the battle, decided that he would not contest the Union gunboats.

He withdrew his forces from the coast and defended only vital interior positions. He was able to thwart Federal efforts to cut the vital railroad link between Savannah and Charleston. Lee's strategy was maintained even after he was recalled to Richmond and given command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Where he earned his fame.

Flag Officer Du Pont was widely honored for his part in the victory. When the rank of rear admiral was created for the U. Navy in July 1862, he was the second person after David G. He retained command of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron.

And directed continuing naval operations against the coast, including Charleston, Savannah, and Fernandina, Florida. To that end, he set up extensive works at Port Royal Sound for maintaining the fleet, including coaling, provisioning, and repair facilities.

Unfortunately, Du Pont proved to be unduly cautious, and his reputation could not survive the failure of the fleet attack on Charleston. He soon thereafter retired from the service. General Sherman continued to serve in various capacities throughout the war, but without distinction. His abrasive personality made him difficult to work with, so he was shunted off to lesser commands. He lost his right leg in combat at Port Hudson.

After a Union victory, Confederate Brigadier-General Thomas F. Drayton directed the evacuation of rebel forces from Hilton Head Island to the Bluffton mainland.

Occupying Port Royal Harbor, the Unions South Atlantic Blockading Squadron could then be monitored by rebel lookouts disbursed from Blufftons substantial picket headquarters. Blufftons geographic location resulted in it being the only strategic position on the east coast where the Confederates could gather direct intelligence on the Union squadron, which conducted crucial blockade operations along the southern coastline in the aftermath of the battle. General Drayton proved to be incompetent in the field, so he was put in various administrative positions. The aftermath of the battle and the resultant freeing of the slaves was described by John Greenleaf Whittier. In his poem At Port Royal.

1,261 long tons (1,281 t). 35 ft 3 in (10.74 m).

22 ft 3 in (6.78 m). The second USS Florida was a sidewheel steamer in the United States Navy. On 5 October 1861, with Lieutenant John R.

Florida stood out of New York Harbor. On 19 October 1861 to join the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. In patrolling the coasts of South Carolina. Who were running the blockade. During November 1862, she was decommissioned for repairs, and was recommissioned 7 March 1863 for service with the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. She was particularly successful in this assignment, capturing a steamer and a schooner off Wilmington, North Carolina. In June 1863, and aiding the destruction of a number of British steamers used as blockade runners in February 1864, including PS Fanny and Jennie. Again out of commission for repairs between 12 December 1864 and 26 February 1865, Florida sailed 10 March with supplies for ships on station along the Atlantic. She proceeded through the Gulf of Mexico.

Prisoners from the ram CSS Webb. Transporting them to New York. Florida weighed anchor again to cruise the Gulf of Mexico until the end of 1865. On her final voyage, Florida sailed in the West Indies.

From 4 January 1866 to 8 April 1867. The item "CIVIL WAR PRIZE Solis-Cohen BATTLE PORT ROYAL Piracy PRIVATEERING Naval JEWISH" is in sale since Wednesday, November 18, 2020.

This item is in the category "Books\Antiquarian & Collectible". The seller is "mantosilver" and is located in Spencerport, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.

  • Year Printed: 1833
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Topic: Civil War (1861-65)
  • Binding: Leather
  • Region: North America
  • Subject: Military & War
  • Language: English
  • Place of Publication: New York
  • Special Attributes: Collector's Edition